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Florida
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This article is about the U.S. state of Florida. For other uses, see Florida (disambiguation).
State of Florida
Flag of Florida State seal of Florida
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Sunshine State
Motto(s): In God We Trust (2006)[1][2]
State song(s): "Old Folks at Home (State Song), Florida (Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky) (State Anthem)"
Map of the United States with Florida highlighted
Official language English[3]
Spoken languages Predominantly English and Spanish[4]
Demonym Floridian, Floridan
Capital Tallahassee
Largest city Jacksonville
Largest metro Greater Miami
Area Ranked 22nd
• Total 65,755[5] sq mi
(170,304[5] km2)
• Width 361 miles (582 km)
• Length 447 miles (721 km)
• % water 17.9
• Latitude 24° 27' N to 31° 00' N
• Longitude 80° 02' W to 87° 38' W
Population Ranked 3rd
• Total 21,312,211 (2018 est.)[6][7]
• Density 384.3/sq mi (121.0/km2)
Ranked 8th
• Median household income $48,825[8] (41st)
Elevation
• Highest point Britton Hill[9][10]
345 ft (105 m)
• Mean 100 ft (30 m)
• Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[9]
Sea level
Before statehood Florida Territory
Admission to Union March 3, 1845 (27th)
Governor Rick Scott (R)
Lieutenant Governor Carlos López-Cantera (R)
Legislature Florida Legislature
• Upper house Senate
• Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Bill Nelson (D)
Marco Rubio (R)
U.S. House delegation 16 Republicans
11 Democrats (list)
Time zones
• Peninsula and "Big Bend" region EST: UTC −5/−4
• Panhandle west of the Apalachicola River CST: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-FL
Abbreviations FL, Fla.
Website myflorida.com
Florida state symbols

Florida (/ˈflɒrɪdə/ (About this sound listen); Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive (65,755 sq mi—170,304 km2), the 3rd-most populous (21,312,211 inhabitants),[12][7] and the 8th-most densely populated (384.3/sq mi—121.0/km2) of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U.S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south.[13] The American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, and manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, and is the only continental U.S. state with a tropical climate. It is also the only continental U.S. state with a coral reef called the Florida Reef.[14]

Since the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León – who named it Florida, informally La Florida ([la floˈɾiða] "the land of flowers") upon landing there in the Easter season, Pascua Florida[15] – Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, and racial segregation after the American Civil War.

Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues. The state's economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, and as a popular destination for retirees.

Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of Florida culture and daily life. Florida is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; African, European, indigenous, and Latino heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing and water sports. Several beaches in Florida have turquoise and emerald-colored coastal waters.[16]
Contents

1 History
1.1 European arrival
1.2 Joining the United States; Indian removal
1.3 Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement
1.4 20th and 21st century growth
2 Geography
2.1 Climate
2.2 Fauna
2.3 Flora
2.4 Environmental issues
2.5 Geology
2.6 Regions
3 Demographics
3.1 Population
3.2 Settlements
3.3 Ancestry
3.4 Languages
3.5 Religion
4 Governance
4.1 Elections history
4.1.1 Elections of 2000 to present
4.2 Statutes
4.3 Law enforcement
5 Economy
5.1 Personal income
5.2 Real estate
5.3 Tourism
5.4 Agriculture and fishing
5.5 Industry
5.6 Mining
5.7 Government
6 Seaports
7 Health
8 Architecture
9 Media
10 Education
10.1 Primary and secondary education
10.2 Higher education
11 Transportation
11.1 Highways
11.2 Airports
11.3 Intercity rail
11.4 Public transit
12 Sports
13 Sister states
14 See also
15 References
16 Bibliography
17 External links

History
Main article: History of Florida

By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
European arrival
Main article: Spanish Florida
Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539–1543).

Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513. He named the region Florida ("land of flowers").[17] The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death.[18]

In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet (21 m), with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult.[19] The Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Castilian language, and more to Florida.[20] Spain established several settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was mostly abandoned by 1561.
The Castillo de San Marcos. Originally white with red corners, its design reflects the colors and shapes of the Cross of Burgundy and the subsequent Flag of Florida.

In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine (San Agustín) was established under the leadership of admiral and governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, creating what would become one of the oldest, continuously-occupied European settlements in the continental U.S. and establishing the first generation of Floridanos and the Government of Florida.[21] Spain maintained strategic control over the region by converting the local tribes to Christianity. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville, and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian, occurred in 1565 in St. Augustine. It is the first recorded Christian marriage in the continental United States.[22]

Some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683.[23]

The geographical area of Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north and French claims to the west. The English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Spain built the Castillo de San Marcos in 1672 and Fort Matanzas in 1742 to defend Florida's capital city from attacks, and to maintain its strategic position in the defense of the Captaincy General of Cuba and the Spanish West Indies.
Grenadiers led by Bernardo de Gálvez at the Siege of Pensacola. Painting by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, 2015.

Florida attracted numerous Africans and African Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery. In 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St. Augustine, a fortified town for escaped slaves to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their service in the Florida militia, and which became the first free black settlement legally sanctioned in North America.[24][25]

In 1763, Spain traded Florida to the Kingdom of Great Britain for control of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. It was part of a large expansion of British territory following their victory in the Seven Years' War. A large portion of the Floridano population left, taking along most of the remaining indigenous population to Cuba.[26] The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia. The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point called Wacca Pilatka, or the British name "Cow Ford", ostensibly reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.[27][28][29]
East Florida and West Florida in British period (1763–1783)

The British divided and consolidated the Florida provinces (Las Floridas) into East Florida and West Florida, a division the Spanish government kept after the brief British period.[30] The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the French and Indian War in order to encourage settlement. In order to induce settlers to move to Florida, reports of its natural wealth were published in England. A large number of British settlers who were described as being "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida, mostly coming from South Carolina, Georgia and England. There was also a group of settlers who came from the colony of Bermuda. This would be the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now Duval County, Baker County, St. Johns County and Nassau County. The British built good public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits as well as the export of lumber.[31][32]

As a result of these initiatives, northeastern Florida prospered economically in a way it never did under Spanish administration. Furthermore, the British governors were directed to call general assemblies as soon as possible in order to make laws for the Floridas and in the meantime they were, with the advice of councils, to establish courts. This would be the first introduction of much of the English-derived legal system which Florida still has today including trial by jury, habeas corpus and county-based government.[31][32] Neither East Florida nor West Florida would send any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida would remain a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution.[33]

Spain regained both East and West Florida after Britain's defeat in the American Revolution and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821.
Joining the United States; Indian removal
See also: Republic of East Florida, Florida Territory, and Seminole Wars
A Cracker cowboy, 19th century

Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States was minor during the second Spanish period. The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform.

Americans of English descent and Americans of Scots-Irish descent began moving into northern Florida from the backwoods of Georgia and South Carolina. Though technically not allowed by the Spanish authorities and the Floridan government, they were never able to effectively police the border region and the backwoods settlers from the United States would continue to immigrate into Florida unchecked. These migrants, mixing with the already present British settlers who had remained in Florida since the British period, would be the progenitors of the population known as Florida Crackers.[34]

These American settlers established a permanent foothold in the area and ignored Spanish authorities. The British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic of West Florida on September 23. After meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the garrison at Baton Rouge (now in Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag would later become known as the "Bonnie Blue Flag".

In 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by proclamation of President James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase. These parts were incorporated into the newly formed Territory of Orleans. The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States gradually increased the area it occupied. In 1812, a group of settlers from Georgia, with de facto support from the U.S. federal government, attempted to overthrow the Floridan government in the province of East Florida. The settlers hoped to convince Floridans to join their cause and proclaim independence from Spain, but the settlers lost their tenuous support from the federal government and abandoned their cause by 1813.[35]

Seminoles based in East Florida began raiding Georgia settlements, and offering havens for runaway slaves. The United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War. The United States now effectively controlled East Florida. Control was necessary according to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams because Florida had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them."[36]

Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. Madrid therefore decided to cede the territory to the United States through the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect in 1821.[37] President James Monroe was authorized on March 3, 1821 to take possession of East Florida and West Florida for the United States and provide for initial governance.[38] Andrew Jackson, on behalf of the U.S. federal government, served as a military commissioner with the powers of governor of the newly acquired territory for a brief period.[39] On March 30, 1822, the U.S. Congress merged East Florida and part of West Florida into the Florida Territory.[40]
A contemporaneous depiction of the New River Massacre in 1836

By the early 1800s, Indian removal was a significant issue throughout the southeastern U.S. and also in Florida. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the U.S. government to remove the Indians from Florida. Seminoles harbored runaway blacks, known as the Black Seminoles, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the Treaty of Payne's Landing promised to the Seminoles lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida. Many Seminole left at this time.

Some Seminoles remained, and the U.S. Army arrived in Florida, leading to the Second Seminole War (1835–1842). Following the war, approximately 3,000 Seminole and 800 Black Seminole were removed to Indian Territory. A few hundred Seminole remained in Florida in the Everglades.

On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state to join the United States of America.[41] The state was admitted as a slave state and ceased to be a sanctuary for runaway slaves. Initially its population grew slowly.

As European settlers continued to encroach on Seminole lands, and the United States intervened to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The Third Seminole War (1855–58) resulted in the forced removal of most of the remaining Seminoles, although hundreds of Seminole Indians remained in the Everglades.[42]
Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement
Further information: Florida in the American Civil War
The Battle of Olustee during the American Civil War, 1864.

American settlers began to establish cotton plantations in north Florida, which required numerous laborers, which they supplied by buying slaves in the domestic market. By 1860, Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1,000 free African Americans before the American Civil War.[43]

On January 10, 1861, nearly all delegates in the Florida Legislature approved an ordinance of secession,[44] declaring Florida to be "a sovereign and independent nation"—an apparent reassertion to the preamble in Florida's Constitution of 1838, in which Florida agreed with Congress to be a "Free and Independent State." Although not directly related to the issue of slavery, the ordinance declared Florida's secession from the Union, allowing it to become one of the founding members of the Confederate States, a looser union of states.

The confederal union received little help from Florida; the 15,000 men it offered were generally sent elsewhere. The largest engagements in the state were the Battle of Olustee, on February 20, 1864, and the Battle of Natural Bridge, on March 6, 1865. Both were Confederate victories.[45] The war ended in 1865.

Following the American Civil War, Florida's congressional representation was restored on June 25, 1868, albeit forcefully after Radical Reconstruction and the installation of unelected government officials under the final authority of federal military commanders. After the Reconstruction period ended in 1876, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature. In 1885, they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.[46]

Until the mid-20th century, Florida was the least populous state in the southern United States. In 1900, its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American, the same proportion as before the Civil War.[47] The boll weevil devastated cotton crops.

Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population, left the state in the Great Migration. They left due to lynchings and racial violence, and for better opportunities.[48] Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation in 1965 to enforce protection of their constitutional suffrage.
20th and 21st century growth
Key West Historic District
Miami's Freedom Tower

Historically, Florida's economy has been based primarily upon agricultural products such as cattle, sugar cane, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and strawberries.

Economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida and related development of hotels and resort communities. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the Florida land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intense land development. Devastating hurricanes in 1926 and 1928, followed by the Great Depression, brought that period to a halt. Florida's economy did not fully recover until the military buildup for World War II.

In 1939, Florida was described as "still very largely an empty State."[49] Subsequently, the growing availability of air conditioning, the climate, and a low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the Rust Belt and the Northeast sharply increased Florida's population after 1945. In the 1960s, many refugees from Cuba fleeing Fidel Castro's communist regime arrived in Miami at the Freedom Tower, where the federal government used the facility to process, document and provide medical and dental services for the newcomers. As a result, the Freedom Tower was also called the "Ellis Island of the South." [50] In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy.

With a population of more than 18 million, according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the southeastern United States and the third-most populous in the United States.

After Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico in September 2017, a large population of Puerto Ricans began moving to Florida to escape the widespread destruction. Hundreds of thousands of Puerto Ricans arrived in Florida after Maria dissipated, with nearly half of them arriving in Orlando and large populations also moving to Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach.[51]
Geography
Main article: Geography of Florida
See also: List of counties in Florida, List of places in Florida, List of municipalities in Florida, List of islands of Florida, and List of Florida state parks
A topographic map of Florida
Florida and its relation to Cuba and The Bahamas

Much of Florida is on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean and the Straits of Florida. Spanning two time zones, it extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. It is the only state that borders the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Florida is west of The Bahamas and 90 miles (140 km) north of Cuba. Florida is one of the largest states east of the Mississippi River, and only Alaska and Michigan are larger in water area. The water boundary is 3 nautical miles (3.5 mi; 5.6 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean[52] and 9 nautical miles (10 mi; 17 km) offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.[52]

At 345 feet (105 m) above mean sea level, Britton Hill is the highest point in Florida and the lowest highpoint of any U.S. state.[53] Much of the state south of Orlando lies at a lower elevation than northern Florida, and is fairly level. Much of the state is at or near sea level. However, some places such as Clearwater have promontories that rise 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the water. Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25 mi (40 km) or more away from the coastline, have rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250 ft (30 to 76 m). The highest point in peninsular Florida (east and south of the Suwannee River), Sugarloaf Mountain, is a 312-foot (95 m) peak in Lake County.[54] On average, Florida is the flattest state in the United States.[55]
Climate
Main article: Climate of Florida
See also: List of Florida hurricanes and U.S. state temperature extremes
Köppen climate types of Florida

The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by the fact that no part of the state is distant from the ocean. North of Lake Okeechobee, the prevalent climate is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), while areas south of the lake (including the Florida Keys) have a true tropical climate (Köppen: Aw).[56] Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32–34 °C). Mean low temperatures for early to mid January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4–7 °C) in north Florida to above 60 °F (16 °C) from Miami on southward. With an average daily temperature of 70.7 °F (21.5 °C), it is the warmest state in the U.S.[57]

In the summer, high temperatures in the state seldom exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Several record cold maxima have been in the 30s °F (−1 to 4 °C) and record lows have been in the 10s (−12 to −7 °C). These temperatures normally extend at most a few days at a time in the northern and central parts of Florida. South Florida, however, rarely encounters below freezing temperatures.[58] The hottest temperature ever recorded in Florida was 109 °F (43 °C), which was set on June 29, 1931 in Monticello. The coldest temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 13, 1899, just 25 miles (40 km) away, in Tallahassee.[59][60]

Due to its subtropical and tropical climate, Florida rarely receives measurable snowfall. However, on rare occasions, a combination of cold moisture and freezing temperatures can result in snowfall in the farthest northern regions. Frost, which is more common than snow, sometimes occurs in the panhandle.[citation needed] The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range from zone 8a (no colder than 10 °F or −12 °C) in the inland western panhandle to zone 11b (no colder than 45 °F or 7 °C) in the lower Florida Keys.[61]
Average high and low temperatures for various Florida cities
°F Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jacksonville[62] 65/42 68/45 74/50 79/55 86/63 90/70 92/73 91/73 87/69 80/61 74/51 67/44
Miami[63] 76/60 78/62 80/65 83/68 87/73 89/76 91/77 91/77 89/76 86/73 82/68 78/63
Orlando[64] 71/49 74/52 78/56 83/60 88/66 91/72 92/74 92/74 90/73 85/66 78/59 73/52
Pensacola[65] 61/43 64/46 70/51 76/58 84/66 89/72 90/74 90/74 87/70 80/60 70/50 63/45
Tallahassee[66] 64/39 68/42 74/47 80/52 87/62 91/70 92/72 92/72 89/68 82/57 73/48 66/41
Tampa[67] 70/51 73/54 77/58 81/62 88/69 90/74 90/75 91/76 89/74 85/67 78/60 72/54
°C Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jacksonville 18/6 20/7 23/10 26/13 30/17 32/21 33/23 33/23 31/21 27/16 23/11 19/7
Miami 24/16 26/17 27/18 28/20 31/23 32/24 33/25 33/25 32/24 30/23 28/20 26/17
Orlando 22/9 23/11 26/13 28/16 31/19 33/22 33/23 33/23 32/23 29/19 26/15 23/11
Pensacola 16/6 18/8 21/11 24/14 29/19 32/22 32/23 32/23 31/21 27/16 21/10 17/7
Tallahassee 18/4 20/6 23/8 27/11 31/17 33/21 33/22 33/22 32/20 28/14 23/9 19/5
Tampa 21/11 23/12 25/14 27/17 31/21 32/23 32/24 33/24 32/23 29/19 26/16 22/12
Hurricane Irma right before landfall in Florida on September 10, 2017. Hurricane Jose can be seen to the lower right.
Coconut palms on the beaches of Key Biscayne in Miami show South Florida's tropical climate.

Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country.[68] Florida has one of the highest average precipitation levels of any state,[69] in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in much of the state from late spring until early autumn. A narrow eastern part of the state including Orlando and Jacksonville receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. The rest of the state, including Miami, receives between 2,800 and 3,200 hours annually.[70]

Florida leads the United States in tornadoes per area (when including waterspouts),[71] but they do not typically reach the intensity of those in the Midwest and Great Plains. Hail often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms.[citation needed]

Hurricanes pose a severe threat each year during the June 1 to November 30 hurricane season, particularly from August to October. Florida is the most hurricane-prone state, with subtropical or tropical water on a lengthy coastline. Of the category 4 or higher storms that have struck the United States, 83% have either hit Florida or Texas.[72]

From 1851 to 2006, Florida was struck by 114 hurricanes, 37 of them major—category 3 and above.[72] It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm.[citation needed]

In 1992, Florida was the site of what was then the costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than $25 billion in damages when it struck during August; it held that distinction until 2005, when Hurricane Katrina surpassed it, and it has since been surpassed by six other hurricanes. Andrew is currently the second costliest hurricane in Florida's history.

Hurricane Wilma, the third-most expensive hurricane in Florida's history, made landfall just south of Marco Island in October 2005. Wilma was responsible for about $21 billion in damages in Florida.[73][74]

Although many tropical storms would continue to affect the state after Wilma, it would be eleven years until the next hurricane, Hurricane Hermine struck the state, and twelve years until the next major hurricane, Hurricane Irma. After devastating multiple Caribbean islands as one of the most powerful Category 5 hurricanes ever recorded, Irma struck the Florida Keys as a Category 4 hurricane and made a second Florida landfall in Marco Island as a Category 3 hurricane.

While Irma's damage in Florida was far less than what was originally feared, it was still incredibly destructive, causing at least $50 billion in damages to Florida alone and around $66.8 billion in total, including damages to the many islands that were impacted.

This made it the costliest hurricane in Florida's history and the fifth costliest hurricane ever.
Fauna
Further information: Fauna of Florida
An alligator in the Florida Everglades
American flamingos in South Florida
Key deer in the lower Florida Keys
West Indian manatee
Florida panther native of South Florida

Florida is host to many types of wildlife including:

Marine mammals: bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, North Atlantic right whale, West Indian manatee
Mammals: Florida panther, northern river otter, mink, eastern cottontail rabbit, marsh rabbit, raccoon, striped skunk, squirrel, white-tailed deer, Key deer, bobcats, red fox, gray fox, coyote, wild boar, Florida black bear, nine-banded armadillos, Virginia opossum
Reptiles: eastern diamondback and pygmy rattlesnakes, gopher tortoise, green and leatherback sea turtles, and eastern indigo snake. In 2012, there were about one million American alligators and 1,500 crocodiles.[75]
Birds: peregrine falcon,[76] bald eagle, northern caracara, snail kite, osprey, white and brown pelicans, sea gulls, whooping and sandhill cranes, roseate spoonbill, Florida scrub jay (state endemic), and others. One subspecies of wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, namely subspecies osceola, is found only in Florida.[77] The state is a wintering location for many species of eastern North American birds.
As a result of climate change, there have been small numbers of several new species normally native to cooler areas to the north: snowy owls, snow buntings, harlequin ducks, and razorbills. These have been seen in the northern part of the state.[78]
Invertebrates: carpenter ants, termites, American cockroach, Africanized bees, the Miami blue butterfly, and the grizzled mantis.

The only known calving area for the northern right whale is off the coasts of Florida and Georgia.[79]

The native bear population has risen from a historic low of 300 in the 1970s, to 3,000 in 2011.[80]

Since their accidental importation from South America into North America in the 1930s, the red imported fire ant population has increased its territorial range to include most of the southern United States, including Florida. They are more aggressive than most native ant species and have a painful sting.[81]

A number of non-native snakes and lizards have been released in the wild. In 2010, the state created a hunting season for Burmese and Indian pythons, African rock pythons, green anacondas, yellow anacondas, common boas, and Nile monitor lizards.[82] Green iguanas have also established a firm population in the southern part of the state.

There are about 500,000 feral pigs in Florida.[83]

Florida also has more than 500 nonnative animal species and 1,000 nonnative insects found throughout the state.[84] Some exotic species living in Florida include the Burmese python, green iguana, veiled chameleon, Argentine black and white tegu, peacock bass, lionfish, rhesus macaque, vervet monkey, Cuban tree frog, cane toad, monk parakeet, tui parakeet, and many more. Some of these nonnative species do not pose a threat to any native species, but some do threaten the native species of Florida by living in the state and eating them.[85]
Flora
The Sabal palmetto is one of twelve palm tree species that are native to Florida and is the official state tree.
Further information: Florida mangroves and List of invasive plant species in Florida

There are about 3,000 different types of wildflowers in Florida. This is the third-most diverse state in the union, behind California and Texas, both larger states.[86]

On the east coast of the state, mangroves have normally dominated the coast from Cocoa Beach southward; salt marshes from St. Augustine northward. From St. Augustine south to Cocoa Beach, the coast fluctuates between the two, depending on the annual weather conditions.[78]
Environmental issues
Main article: Environment of Florida
See also: Environmental issues in Florida
An American alligator and an invasive Burmese python in Everglades National Park

Florida is a low per capita energy user.[87] It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.[88] Florida's energy production is 6% of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 6% for nitrogen oxide, 5% for carbon dioxide, and 4% for sulfur dioxide.[88]

All potable water resources have been controlled by the state government through five regional water authorities since 1972.[89]

Red tide has been an issue on the southwest coast of Florida, as well as other areas. While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides.[90]

Around the world, coral reefs are facing trouble. Coral bleaching, due in part to rising ocean temperatures, has stressed reefs, leaving them weakened and susceptible to disease. Now, in Florida, scientists are struggling to combat a mysterious disease that's threatening the future of the world's third largest coral reef.

In just four years, the so-far unidentified disease has already had a dramatic impact on Florida's reef tract, which extends some 360 miles down the state's Atlantic coast.[91]

The Florida panther is close to extinction. A record 23 were killed in 2009, mainly by automobile collisions, leaving about 100 individuals in the wild. The Center for Biological Diversity and others have therefore called for a special protected area for the panther to be established.[92] Manatees are also dying at a rate higher than their reproduction.

Much of Florida has an elevation of less than 12 feet (3.7 m), including many populated areas. Therefore, it is susceptible to rising sea levels associated with global warming.[93] The Atlantic beaches that are vital to the state's economy are being washed out to sea due to rising sea levels caused by climate change. The Miami beach area, close to the continental shelf, is running out of accessible offshore sand reserves.[94]

Florida has a large number of non-native species. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission tracks 31 species of mammals,[95] 196 species of birds,[96] 48 species of reptiles,[97] 4 species of amphibians,[98] and 55 species of fish[99] that have been observed in the state. Many species are either non-breeding or stable populations, but several species, including the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus),[100] Gambian Pouched Rat (Cricetomys gambianus),[101] Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus),[102] and Burmese Python (Python molurus bivittatus),[103] have created significant impact on the delicate ecosystems of the state. Florida has more invasive amphibians and reptiles than anyplace else in the world. The pet industry was responsible for 84% of the 137 non-native species introduced from 1863-2010. [104] Approximately 1,300 of Florida's plant species too, 31 percent of the total, are non-natives which have become established; 10 percent of these are considered invasive.[105]
Geology
Main article: Geology of Florida

The Florida peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock known as the Florida Platform. The largest deposits of potash in the United States are found in Florida.[106]

Extended systems of underwater caves, sinkholes and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents. The limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. During the last glacial period, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely savanna.[107] The Everglades, an enormously wide, slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Sinkhole damage claims on property in the state exceeded a total of $2 billion from 2006 through 2010.[108]

Florida is tied for last place as having the fewest earthquakes of any U.S. state.[109][110] Earthquakes are rare because Florida is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries.
Regions
The emerald-green waters of Destin on Florida's Emerald Coast
Map of North Florida
The Tampa Bay Area as seen from a satellite

Directional regions

Central Florida
North Florida
Northwest Florida
North Central Florida
Northeast Florida
South Florida
Southwest Florida

Coastal Regions

Emerald Coast
First Coast
Forgotten Coast
Gold Coast
Surf Coast/Fun Coast/Halifax Area
Nature Coast
Space Coast
Suncoast
Treasure Coast

Metropolitan regions

Greater Miami Area/South Florida
Tampa Bay Area
Greater Orlando/Metro Orlando
Greater Jacksonville/Metro Jacksonville

Other regions

Big Bend
Florida Heartland
Florida Keys
Florida Panhandle
Everglades
Red Hills/Tallahassee Hills
Ten Thousand Islands
I-4 Corridor

Demographics
Florida's population density
Main article: Demographics of Florida
See also: Culture of Florida
Population
Historical population
Census Pop. %±
1830 34,730 —
1840 54,477 56.9%
1850 87,445 60.5%
1860 140,424 60.6%
1870 187,748 33.7%
1880 269,493 43.5%
1890 391,422 45.2%
1900 528,542 35.0%
1910 752,619 42.4%
1920 968,470 28.7%
1930 1,468,211 51.6%
1940 1,897,414 29.2%
1950 2,771,305 46.1%
1960 4,951,560 78.7%
1970 6,789,443 37.1%
1980 9,746,324 43.6%
1990 12,937,926 32.7%
2000 15,982,378 23.5%
2010 18,801,310 17.6%
Est. 2017 20,984,400 11.6%
Sources: 1910–2010[111]
2016 Estimate[112]

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Florida was 20,271,272 on July 1, 2015, a 7.82% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[112] The population of Florida in the 2010 census was 18,801,310.[113] Florida was the seventh fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 12-month period ending July 1, 2012.[114] In 2010, the center of population of Florida was located between Fort Meade and Frostproof. The center of population has moved less than 5 miles (8 km) to the east and approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the north between 1980 and 2010 and has been located in Polk County since the 1960 census.[115] The population exceeded 19.7 million by December 2014, surpassing the population of the state of New York for the first time.[116]

Florida contains the highest percentage of people over 65 (17%).[117] There were 186,102 military retirees living in the state in 2008.[118] About two-thirds of the population was born in another state, the second highest in the U.S.[119]

In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 5.7% of the population. This was the sixth highest percentage of any U.S. state.[120][121] There were an estimated 675,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.[122]

A 2013 Gallup poll indicated that 47% of the residents agreed that Florida was the best state to live in. Results in other states ranged from a low of 18% to a high of 77%.[123]
Settlements
See also: List of urbanized areas in Florida (by population), Florida statistical areas, List of municipalities in Florida, and Florida locations by per capita income

The largest metropolitan area in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States is the Miami metropolitan area, with about 6.06 million people. The Tampa Bay Area, with over 3.02 million people, is the second largest; the Orlando metropolitan area, with over 2.44 million people, is the third; and the Jacksonville metropolitan area, with over 1.47 million people, is fourth.

Florida has 22 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 43 of Florida's 67 counties are in a MSA.

The legal name in Florida for a city, town or village is "municipality". In Florida there is no legal difference between towns, villages and cities.[124]

In 2012, 75% of the population lived within 10 miles (16 km) of the coastline.[125]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida

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